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scientific articles

Haematological determinants of cardiac involvement in adults with sickle cell disease

key information

source: European Heart Journal

year: 2016

authors: Damy T, Bodez D, Habibi A, Guellich A, Rappeneau S, Inamo J, Guendouz S, Gellen-Dautremer J, Pissard S, Loric S, Wagner-Ballon O, Godeau B, Adnot S, Dubois-Randé JL, Hittinger L, Galactéros F, Bartolucci P


Cardiac involvement is common in sickle cell disease (SCD). Studies are needed to establish haematological determinants of this involvement and prognostic markers. The aim of the study was to identify haematological factors associated with cardiac involvement in SCD and their impact on prognosis.

This longitudinal observational study was performed on 1780 SCD patients with SS or S-β(0)-thalassemia referred to our centre. Six hundred fifty-six met our inclusion criteria (availability of a blood-workup and echocardiogram obtained <1 year apart, no heart valve surgery and no current pregnancy). Median age was 31 (interquartile range, 25-40) years, and median haemoglobin (Hb) was 87 (80-95)g/L. Left ventricular (LV) dilation, left atrial dilation, cardiac index (CI) >4 L/min/m(2), LV ejection fraction <55%, and tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) ≥2.5 m/s were found in 35, 78, 23, 8.5, and 17% of patients, respectively. Compared with other patients, those in the fourth quartiles (Q4) of LV end-diastolic dimension index (LVEDDind) and left atrial dimension index (LADind) and those with high CI had significantly lower Hb, % foetal Hb (HbF), and red blood cell (RBC) counts; and significantly higher lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and %dense RBCs. Independent haematologic determinants of Q4 LVEDDind and LADind were low RBC count and %HbF; high %dense RBCs were associated with LADind. Low %HbF and RBC count were associated with high CI. High %dense RBCs or no α-thalassemia gene deletion was associated with greater severity of anaemia and cardiac dilation and with higher CI. During the median follow-up of 48 (32-59) months, 50 (7.6%) patients died. Tricuspid regurgitant velocity ≥ 2.5 m/s was a predictor of mortality. The risk of death increased four-fold when left ventricular ejection fraction <55% was present also (P = 0.0001).

Cardiac dilation and CI elevation in patients with SCD are associated with haematologic variables reflecting haemolysis, RBC rigidity, and blood viscosity. Tricuspid regurgitant velocity ≥ 2.5 and LV dysfunction (even mild) predict mortality.

organisation: Henri Mondor Teaching Hospital, Creteil, France; School of Medicine, Paris-Est University (UPEC), Créteil, France; Amyloidosis Research Institute, Paris-Est University (UPEC), Créteil, France; INSERM Clinical Investigation Centre, France; Mondor Amyloidosis Network, France; Martinique Teaching Hospital, France; IMRB INSERM, Paris-Est University, France

DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv555

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