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scientific articles

Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes-related complications in combined type 2 diabetes and sickle cell trait

key information

source: Diabetes care

year: 2018

authors: Skinner SC, Diaw M, Pialoux V, Mbaye MN, Mury P, Lopez P, Bousquet D, Gueye F, Diedhiou D, Joly P, Renoux C, Sow D, Diop S, Ranque B, Vinet A, Samb A, Guillot N, Connes P

summary/abstract:

Objective:
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rapidly increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, where sickle cell trait (SCT) is also frequent. Although SCT is generally considered a benign condition, evidence suggests that SCT could exaggerate vascular dysfunction in T2D. However, it remains unclear whether SCT could increase the risk of the development of T2D complications. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether T2D complications were more prevalent among Senegalese individuals with SCT and T2D than among those with T2D only.

Research Design and Methods:
Rates of hypertension, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral artery disease, and impaired renal function as well as arterial stiffness, blood rheology, and concentrations of plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and cytokines were compared between groups of Senegalese individuals with combined SCT and T2D (T2D-SCT) (n = 60), T2D (n = 52), SCT (n = 53), and neither T2D nor SCT (control) (n = 56). Human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) expression of inflammatory and adhesion factors was measured after treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α and subjects’ plasma. Effects of AGE inhibition or tiron on HAEC expression of E-selectin were measured.

Results:
Retinopathy, hypertension, and reduced renal function were more prevalent, and arterial stiffness, blood viscosity at high shear rates, and thixotropic index were higher, in the SCT group compared with the other groups. Multivariable analysis showed that plasma AGE concentration was significantly associated with arterial stiffness. E-selectin expression was elevated in HAECs treated with T2D-SCT plasma compared with the other groups, but AGE inhibition reversed this.

Conclusions:
SCT could potentially augment the risk of the development of T2D-related complications, including retinopathy, nephropathy, and hypertension.

organization: University de Lyon 1, France; Laboratory of Excellence GR-EX, France; Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Institute of Universities of France, France; Abass Ndao Hospital Center, Senegal; Institut National des Sciences Appliquées Lyon, France; Biology Center East, France; Sorbonne Paris Cité, France; Université d'Avignon, France

DOI: 10.2337/dc18-1289

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