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scientific articles

Robust Clinical and Laboratory Response to Hydroxyurea Using Pharmacokinetically Guided Dosing for Young Children With Sickle Cell Anemia

key information

source: American Journal of Hematology

year: 2019

authors: Patrick T. McGann, Omar Niss, Min Dong, Anu Marahatta, Thad Howard, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Adam Lane, Theodosia A. Kalfa, Punam Malik, Charles T. Quinn, Russell E. Ware, Alexander A. Vinks

summary/abstract:

Hydroxyurea is FDA-approved and now increasingly used for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but dosing strategies, pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles, and treatment responses for individual patients are highly variable. Typical weight-based dosing with step-wise escalation to maximum tolerated dose (MTD) leads to predictable laboratory and clinical benefits, but often takes 6 to 12 months to achieve. The Therapeutic Response Evaluation and Adherence Trial (TREAT, NCT02286154) was a single-center study designed to prospectively validate a novel personalized PK-guided hydroxyurea dosing strategy with a primary endpoint of time to MTD. Enrolled participants received a single oral 20 mg/kg dose of hydroxyurea, followed by a sparse PK sampling approach with three samples collected over three hours. Analysis of individual PK data into a population PK model generated a starting dose that targets the MTD. The TREAT cohort (n = 50) was young, starting hydroxyurea at a median age of 11 months (IQR 9-26 months), and PK-guided starting doses were high (27.7 ± 4.9 mg/kg/d).

Time to MTD was 4.8 months (IQR 3.3-9.3), significantly shorter than comparison studies (p < 0.0001), thus meeting the primary endpoint. More remarkably, the laboratory response for participants starting with a PK-guided dose was quite robust, achieving higher hemoglobin (10.1 ± 1.3 g/dL) and HbF (33.3 ± 9.1%) levels than traditional dosing. Though higher than traditional dosing, PK-guided doses were safe without excess hematologic toxicities. Our data suggest early initiation of hydroxyurea, using a personalized dosing strategy for children with SCA, provides laboratory and clinical response beyond what has been seen historically, with traditional weight-based dosing.

organization: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, USA; University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, USA

DOI: 10.1002/ajh.25510

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