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abstracts & posters

Prevalence and correlates of growth failure in african patients with sickle cell disease: A multinational study

key information

source: American Society of Hematology

year: 2017

authors: Laure Alexandre, Dapa Diallo, Aissata Tolo, Saliou Diop, Ibrahima Sanogo, Ibrahima Diagne, Guillaume Wamba, Kouakou Boidy, Indou Deme Ly, Abdoul Karim Dembele, Suzanne Belinga, Marie Dubert, Xavier Jouven, Brigitte Ranque


Growth failure has been a well-known complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) since the 70s. More recent studies show that the proportion of underweight children with SCD has decreased significantly, thanks to modern treatments (in particular hydroxyurea and iterative transfusions), with a tendency towards overweight and even obesity. However, most studies have been carried out in high-income countries, while 80% of the affected children are born in sub-Saharan Africa, where the environment and the medical care are entirely different. We carried out a case-control study nested in a multinational African cohort to study the growth of sickle cell children and the possible factors influencing growth failure.

Methods: We performed a case-control transversal study nested in the CADRE cohort that includes SCD patients from five African countries: Cameroon, Gabon, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal. All children aged 5 to 21 years-old from this cohort were included in our study. Healthy controls were recruited among the patients’ siblings or the children of health workers from each center. The main parameters studied were: medical history, height, weight, blood pressure; hemoglobin phenotype (SS, Sβ0, SC or Sβ +); complete blood count; hemolysis markers (LDH and bilirubin); microalbuminuria; echocardiographic parameters. The primary endpoint was growth failure, defined as a weight, height or BMI below the 5th percentile of the WHO growth charts. We described the frequency of growth failure according to hemoglobin phenotype, age and sex. Then we assessed by multivariate logistic regression in two SCD phenotypic groups (SS or Sβ0 and SC or Sβ +) the association between growth failure and the biological characteristics or the history of SCD-related complications.

Conclusion: In sub-Saharan Africa, growth failure occurs in more than half of the SCD children and concerns weight more than height. Its prevalence is particularly high in SS or Sβ0 patients and during adolescence, due to pubertal delay. Growth failure in SCD children is associated with male sex, anemia and high hemolysis markers independently of the hemoglobin phenotype, but is not independently associated with the occurrence of acute or chronic vascular complications of sickle cell disease, apart from microalbuminuria. However, the long-term consequences of growth failure in sickle cell disease should be evaluated in a longitudinal study.

organization: Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France; Centre de Recherche et de Lutte contre la Drépanocytose, Bamako, Mali; CHU de Yopougon, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine, Dakar, Senegal; University Gaston Berger, Saint Louis, Senegal; Centre Hospitalier d’Essos, Yaounde, Cameroon; Centre Hospitalier National d'Enfants Albert Royer, Dakar, Senegal; Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Université Paris Descartes, Inserm, Paris, France

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