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scientific articles

Interventions for chronic kidney disease in people with sickle cell disease

key information

source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

year: 2017

authors: Roy NB, Fortin PM, Bull KR, Doree C, Trivella M, Hopewell S, Estcourt LJ

summary/abstract:

BACKGROUND:
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta-globin) genes. SCD can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Kidney disease is a frequent and potentially severe complication in people with SCD.Chronic kidney disease is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for more than three months. Sickle cell nephropathy refers to the spectrum of kidney complications in SCD.Glomerular damage is a cause of microalbuminuria and can develop at an early age in children with SCD, and increases in prevalence in adulthood. In people with sickle cell nephropathy, outcomes are poor as a result of the progression to proteinuria and chronic kidney insufficiency. Up to 12% of people who develop sickle cell nephropathy will develop end-stage renal disease.

OBJECTIVES:
To assess the effectiveness of any intervention in preventing or reducing kidney complications or chronic kidney disease in people with SCD (including red blood cell transfusions, hydroxyurea and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)), either alone or in combination with each other.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS:
In young children aged 9 months to 18 months, we are very uncertain if hydroxyurea improves glomerular filtration rate or reduces hyperfiltration, but it may improve young children’s ability to concentrate urine and may make little or no difference on the incidence of acute chest syndrome, painful crises and hospitalisations. We are very uncertain if giving ACEI to adults with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications.This review identified no trials that looked at red cell transfusions nor any combinations of interventions to prevent or reduce kidney complications. Due to lack of evidence this review cannot comment on the management of either children aged over 18 months or adults with any known genotype of SCD.We have identified a lack of adequately-designed and powered studies, and no ongoing trials which address this critical question. Trials of hydroxyurea, ACEI or red blood cell transfusion in older children and adults are urgently needed to determine any effect on prevention or reduction kidney complications in people with SCD.

organization: Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012380.pub2

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