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scientific articles

Immunoglobulin G Responses Against Falciparum Malaria Specific Antigens are Higher in Children with Homozygous Sickle Cell Trait Than Those With Normal Hemoglobin

key information

source: BMC Immunology

year: 2019

authors: Bwire GM, Majigo M, Makalla R, Nkinda L, Mawazo A, Mizinduko M, Makani J

summary/abstract:

Background:
High Immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to Plasmodium falciparum antigens is associated with partial malaria protection in sickle hemoglobin (HbS) children. However, this response has been more studied in children with heterozygous sickle cell trait (HbAS) but little explored in those with homozygous sickle cell trait (HbSS). The current study was conducted to determine the IgG responses against specific Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children with homozygous sickle cell trait (HbSS) by comparing to those with normal hemoglobin (HbAA).

Methods:
A cross sectional study was conducted between April and July 2018 in Dar es Salaam tertiary hospitals. Parents were consented for their child to give about 5 ml of venous blood. IgG concentration from the blood plasma of 220 children (110 HbAA vs. 110 HbSS) were determined using indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Then IgG medians were compared between the groups with prism 5 software (GraphPad) using Mann Whitney U test. Where the differences in age, hemoglobin levels and body weight between the groups was analyzed using independent sample t test. Multiple linear regressions were used to control cofounding variables such as body weight, age and hemoglobin level using statistical package for social sciences software (SPSS version 23). P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results:
The median IgG concentration to PfEBA-175, Pfg27, yPfs28C antigens were HbSS; 20.7 ng/ml (IQR; 18.1-25.6) vs. HbAA; 2.3 ng/ml (IQR; 1.21-3.04), HbSS; 2.76 ng/ml (IQR: 2.08-5.69) vs. HbAA; 1.36 ng/ml (IQR: 1.28-1.76), and HbSS; 26,592 ng/ml (IQR: 10817-41,462) vs. HbAA; 14,164 ng/ml (IQR; 3069-24,302) respectively (p < 0.0001 for all IgG). In both groups; age, body weight and hemoglobin level had no impact on the levels of IgG responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens except for HbAA group which showed a significant increase in IgG against Pfg27 by 0.004 ng/ml with 1 g/dl increase in Hb level (p = 0.028).

Conclusions:
This study found significant higher levels of specific Plasmodium falciparum IgG responses in children with homozygous sickle cell trait than those with normal hemoglobin.

organization: Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania; Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children, Tanzania

DOI: 10.1186/s12865-019-0294-z

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