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Immunohaematological complications in patients with sickle cell disease after haemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation: a prospective, single-centre, observational study
source: The Lancet Haematology
authors: Allen ES, Srivastava K, Hsieh MM, Fitzhugh CD, Klein HG, Tisdale JF, Flegel WAsummary/abstract:
Haemopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation can cure sickle cell disease. Non-myeloablative conditioning typically results in donor-derived erythrocytes and stable mixed chimerism of recipient-derived and donor-derived leucocytes. Exposure to donor antigens from the HPC graft and new red cell antibodies induced by transfusion can lead to immunohaematological complications. We assessed the incidence of such complications among HPC transplant recipients with sickle cell disease.
The study population was all patients with sickle cell disease enrolled before March 31, 2015, in the three clinical trials of non-myeloablative HPC transplantation at the National Institutes of Health. We assessed formation of new red cell antibodies after transplantation and red cell incompatibility between donors and recipients.
61 patients were enrolled, 42 were HLA matched and 19 were haploidentical. Nine (15%) had immunohaematological complications. Before HPC transplantation, three patients had antibodies incompatible with their donors. After HPC transplantation, new red cell antibodies were seen in six patients (11 alloantibodies and two autoantibodies), among whom three developed antibodies incompatible with donor or recipient red cells and three developed compatible antibodies. The clinical course of complications was highly variable, from no severe effects attributable to antibodies, to sustained reticulocytopenia, to near-fatal haemolysis. We found no significant correlation between immunohaematological complications and graft failure, graft rejection, or death.
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