Trusted Resources: Evidence & Education
Scientific literature and patient education texts
Genetic Modifiers Influencing the Development of Albuminuria in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia
source: American Society of Hematology
authors: Beverly A Schaefer, Jonathan M Flanagan, Banu Aygun, Ofelia A. Alvarez, Stephen C Nelson, Kerri A Nottage, Carla W Roberts, Thad A. Howard, Barry R Davis, Russell E. Waresummary/abstract:
Background: Nephropathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and portends chronic kidney disease, renal failure, and early mortality among affected adults. Individuals of African descent have disproportionately higher rates of developing non-diabetic renal disease. Several candidate genetic variants have been identified, including some specific to African Americans, which are associated with the development of albuminuria and renal disease. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on albuminuria and elevated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children with SCA, both early signs of sickle nephropathy, has not been investigated.
Objectives: To determine the influence of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the development of albuminuria and elevated GFR in children with SCA; to identify novel genetic variants influencing albuminuria and GFR by whole exome sequencing (WES).
Design/Methods: Genomic DNA was collected on children with SCA enrolled in two prospective studies with pre-hydroxyurea renal assessments (n=185): (1) Hydroxyurea Study of Long-Term Effects (HUSTLE, NCT00305175, n=79) with no prior disease-modifying therapy; and (2) Transcranial Doppler (TCD) With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (TWiTCH, NCT 01425307, n=106) on chronic transfusions for abnormal TCD velocities. Albuminuria was defined as ≥30mg albumin/gm creatinine on the pre-hydroxyurea urine specimen. GFR was measured in HUSTLE using plasma DTPA (technetium 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) clearance, and estimated GFR (eGFR) in TWiTCH based on serum creatinine. DNA samples were genotyped for 8 candidate SNPs previously associated with renal disease, using PCR-based allelic discrimination, bidirectional Sanger sequencing, and analysis of variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Associations between albuminuria and genetic polymorphisms were tested using an additive model and correlation trend test. Linked WES data from the same patients were analyzed to identify other variants associated with albuminuria and GFR.organization: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York; Univ. of Miami School of Med.; Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis; University of South Carolina; University of Texas School of Public Health
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