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abstracts & posters

Ischemic Stroke in Children and Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) in the Post-STOP Era

key information

source: American Society of Hematology

year: 2015

authors: Janet L. Kwiatkowski, Julie Kanter, Heather J. Fullerton, Jenifer Voeks, Ellen Debenham, David G Brown, Lynette J Brown, Robert J. Adams


Background: The Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP) and Optimizing Primary Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP 2) established routine transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) screening with indefinite chronic red cell transfusions (CRCT) for children with abnormal TCD as standard of care. To identify children at high-risk of stroke, annual TCD screening is recommended from ages 2 to 16 years, with more frequent monitoring if the result is not normal. A reduction in stroke incidence in children with SCD has been reported in several clinical series and analyses utilizing large hospital databases when comparing rates before and after the publication of the STOP study in 1998. We sought to determine the rate of first ischemic stroke in a multicenter cohort of children who had previously participated in the STOP and/or STOP 2 trials and to determine whether these strokes were screening or treatment failures.

Subjects and Methods: Between 1995 and 2005, STOP and STOP 2 (STOP/2) were conducted at 26 sites in the US and Canada. These studies included 3,835 children, ages 2 to 16 y with SCD type SS or S-beta-0-thalassemia. Participation in STOP/2 ranged from a single screening TCD to randomization. STOP 2 also had an observational arm for children on CRCT for abnormal TCD whose TCD had not reverted to normal. The Post-STOP study was designed to follow-up the outcomes of children who participated in one or both trials. 19 of the 26 original study sites participated in Post-STOP, contributing a total of 3,539 (92%) of the STOP/2 subjects. After exit from STOP/2, these children received TCD screening and treatment according to local practices. Data abstractors visited each clinical site and obtained retrospective data from STOP/2 study exit to 2012-2014 (depending on site) including follow-up TCD and brain imaging results, clinical information, and laboratory results. Two vascular neurologists, blinded to STOP/2 status and prior TCD and neuroimaging results, reviewed source records to confirm all ischemic strokes, defined as a symptomatic cerebral infarction; discordant opinions were resolved through discussion. For the first Post-STOP ischemic stroke, prior TCD result and treatment history subsequently were analyzed.

organization: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Medical University of South Carolina; University of California San Francisco, San Francisco; Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston

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