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scientific articles

Association of guideline-adherent antibiotic treatment with readmission of children with sickle cell disease hospitalized with acute chest syndrome

key information

source: JAMA Pediatrics

year: 2017

authors: Bundy DG, Richardson TE, Hall M, Raphael JL, Brousseau DC, Arnold SD, Kalpatthi RV, Ellison AM, Oyeku SO, Shah SS


Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a common, serious complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) and a leading cause of hospitalization and death in both children and adults with SCD. Little is known about the effectiveness of guideline-recommended antibiotic regimens for the care of children hospitalized with ACS.

To use a large, national database to describe patterns of antibiotic use for children with SCD hospitalized for ACS and to determine whether receipt of guideline-adherent antibiotics was associated with lower readmission rates.

Of the 14 480 hospitalizations, 6562 (45.3%) were in girls; median (interquartile range) age was 9 (4-14) years. Guideline-adherent antibiotics were provided in 10 654 of 14 480 hospitalizations for ACS (73.6%). Hospitalizations were most likely to include guideline-adherent antibiotics for children aged 5 to 9 years (3230 of 4047 [79.8%]) and declined to the lowest level for children 19 to 22 years (697 of 1088 [64.1%]). Between-hospital variation in antibiotic regimens was wide, with use of guideline-adherent antibiotics ranging from 24% to 90%. Children treated with guideline-adherent antibiotics had lower 30-day ACS-related (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.00) and all-cause (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.39-0.64) readmission rates vs children who received other regimens (cephalosporin and macrolide vs neither drug class).

organization: Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Children's Hospital Association, Lenexa, Kansas; Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York; Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio

DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2526

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