Adverse Reactions to Pneumococcal Vaccine in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients with Sickle Cell Disease | oneSCDvoice
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scientific articles

Adverse Reactions to Pneumococcal Vaccine in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

key information

source: Pharmacotherapy

year: 2015

authors: Han J, Kemiki O, Hsu LL, Rivers AE

summary/abstract:

STUDY OBJECTIVE:
To review five cases of severe adverse reactions after vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in pediatric and adolescent patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), and to evaluate the prevalence of adverse reactions to PPSV23 in patients with SCD by analyzing data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).
DESIGN:
Case series and retrospective analysis of data from the VAERS.
DATA SOURCES:
Medical records from a tertiary care hospital and the VAERS database.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
Five cases of severe adverse reactions after vaccination with PPSV23 in pediatric and adolescent patients with SCD (aged 2-22 years) were reviewed. The adverse reactions occurred within 24 hours after immunization, and all five patients required medical attention. Analysis of data from the VAERS found that PPSV23 was the most commonly reported vaccine causing adverse events in patients with SCD, accounting for 62% of all vaccine-induced adverse events. This rate is significantly higher than the rate of adverse events related to PPSV23 in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or asthma (62% vs 16%, p<0.0001). The reported number of adverse reactions in pediatric patients (< 18 years old) with SCD was 4 times higher than that reported in adult patients (18-39 years old) with SCD.
CONCLUSION:
The risk of developing severe adverse reactions to PPSV23 is greater in patients with SCD than in patients with HIV or asthma, and especially in pediatric and adolescent patients with SCD compared with their adult counterparts. Health care professionals should closely monitor for potential adverse events after PPSV23 vaccination or revaccination in patients with SCD, adhere to the recommended time interval between PCV13 and PPSV23 administration, and possibly consider avoiding simultaneous administration of other vaccines with PPSV23.

organisation: University of Illinois at Chicago

DOI: 10.1002/phar.1607

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